Julie Tobey


Polish meals consist of kiełbasa, pierogi (full of meat, potatoes, cabbage, cheese, or holiday fruits), pyzy (meat-filled bread balls), kopytka, gołąbki (beef and rice stuffed cabbage), śledzie (herring), bigos, schabowy, oscypek and much more. Usually, meals such as soups flaki, rosół, zupa ogórkowa, zupa grzybowa (mushroom soup), żurek, and zupa Pomodoro (tomato soup) happen readily in big vessels meant for groups, usually necessitating the employment of devices such as oars in their planning. Traditionally, hospitality is vital.

Polish meals

The essential drink is vodka. The first known written mention of beverage was in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court papers through the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. The word vodka (wódka) referred to chemical compounds such for example, drugs, and cosmetic makeup products’ cleansers, even though the popular drink was called gorzałka (through the Old Polish gorzeć meaning to burn off), which can be additionally the foundation of Ukrainian horilka at the time. The word vodka printed in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, about a glass or two that is medicinal from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus’.

In the Middle Ages, whilst the urban centers of Poland grew larger in size and grocery stores were created. The exchange is certainly culinary progressed & people got acquainted with new dishes and dishes. Some areas became well known for the sort of sausage they made, and several sausages these days, however, carry those names which are original. The peasants recognized the view that it is honorable for all of them to keep nourished for longer amounts of time.

By a 2009 Ernst & Young report, Poland is Europe’s third lathird-largest producer: Germany with 103 million hectolitres, the UK with 49.5 million hl, and Poland with 36.9 million hl. After growth, this is certainly consecutive to your home marketplace, the Polish Union of the Brewing business companies (Związek Pracodawców Przemysłu Piwowarskiego), which presents around 90% of this Polish alcohol market, revealed throughout the annual brewing business meeting that consumption of alcohol in 2008 rose to 94 liters per capita or 35,624 million hectolitres sold on the domestic market. Statistically, a customer that is polish some 92 liters of alcohol a year puts it a third behind Germany. Consuming alcohol as a drink is fundamental typical through the Middle years. Wine has recently become more popular. A glass of honey wine was an old-fashioned beverage dating back to and also to the Middle years, in fact, Polish mead.

non-alcoholic drinks

Soft drinks include “napoje gazowane” (sodas), “napoje bezalkoholowe” (non-alcoholic drinks) like water, beverage, juice, coffee or kompot. Kompot is a drink that is non-alcoholic of boiled fruit, optionally with sugar and herbs (clove or cinnamon), served hot or cold. It may be manufactured from one kind of good fresh fruit or even a blend, including oranges, peaches, pears, strawberries, or cherries being bad. Also, Susz is a kind of kompot made with dried fruits, mostly oranges, apricots, and figs. Usually served on Christmas Eve.

Among holiday meals, there exists a Christmas. This is certainly old-fashioned Eve labeled as Wigilia. Another event is special Fat Thursday (“Tłusty Czwartek”), a Catholic feast celebrated from the final Thursday before the Lent. Usually, this is a day when people eat considerable amounts of candies and cakes, being afterward forbidden until Easter time.

The history of art in Poland goes way back but due to many invasions and Polish freedom struggle, a huge chunk is lost to history. But polish art has found its way to the hearts of many patriotic and non-patriotic audiences of the 19th, and 20th centuries. The art has managed to maintain its historical evidential touch with a modern view of trends and that becomes its unique character. It comprises many art forms like painting, structures, and handicrafts.


Jan Matejko most famously known as the national painter of Poland formed the Krakow school of history painting in Poland. He was a painter with only one-fourth of a Polish heritage but was a devout patriot and brought forth his patriotism through his exceptional art of painting. He developed portraits of monumental historical events and customs that took place all through polish history. And this is one of the many reasons why he is the national painter of Poland. He was born on the 24th of June 1838 and died at just 55 yrs of age in 1893. His period saw his remarkable art which is still found as a national heritage and is in the educational books of Poland’s history. His works include oil paintings such as Rejtan, The union,the astronomer Copernicus and the battle of Grunwald all of them depicting some of the political, historical, and scientific events of Poland. He also painted some of the polish monarchs in book form and murals in st. marys Basilica, Krakow.

Later during this period, Poland saw the works of Stanisław Witkiewicz who was an ardent supporter of Realism in Polish art. Also, the Mloda Polska popularly known as the Young Poland movement was the birth of modern polish art. It led to big formal experimentation led by Józef Mehoffer,Stanisław Wyspiański and Jacek Malczewski forming a group of Polish Impressionists.

During the 20th the artist represented Avant-Garde and represented various strata and schools of life. The art of Władysław Strzemiński and Henryk Stażewski was built on Constructivism while the art of Tadeusz Makowski was built on cubism. Cubism was inherently a form of art that projected a structure made from cubes but as it was a cube and in three dimensions, it Was open to numerous interpretations and hence was a form of abstract art. This century also saw a great number of contemporary artists. Some of them being Leon Tarasewicz, Mirosław Bałka, Katarzyna Kozyra Wilhelm Sasnal,etc.

Though after the second world war the remnants of the war, like Andrzej Wajda initiated the war’s victims of the Warsaw Uprising,Nazi Holocaust, and Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Some of the important post war painters include Grupa Krakowska (Tadeusz Kantor, Jerzy Duda-Gracz, Jan Szancenbach, Jerzy Duda-Gracz and others.

At present day many galleries and museums of art are being built which is claiming not only national but international acclaim too. Some of the independent galleries are in War.

Poland is known globally for its rich cultural heritage and a strong backbone of rich literature and art. Many of the theatre pieces or rather the forms of theatre in Poland are based on the country’s vast artistic and literary history. Though the spoken word is not so much incorporated in the theatre, there are various other forms like mime, including puppets, figures, shadows, and visual theatre though it has state censorship. Most of the theatre in Poland is dramatic genre-oriented due to the country’s profound historic background. Also, there is no division between theatre-goers and moviegoers as there is no division as such between theatre directors and film directors. Most theatre directors are movie directors too and the same goes with the performing actors and actresses. An example for these would be directors like Daniel Olbrychski, Jerzy Radziwiłowicz, Krystyna Janda, Wojciech Pszoniak and many other actors.

theatre directors

Theatre in Poland is very structured and formal as there is so much professionalism enrooted in it. There are different universities and institutions for creatives to pursue their artistic pursuits. Thus, theatre is and will remain one of the most profound creative expressions of the times to come. The most famous theatre in the country and people’s favorite remains to be the National Theatre in Warsaw. This theatre is known for its relevance in the modern-day as it asks through its plays questions that are staggering in the modern times. This theatre is known for its not-so-conservative take and an ever-challenging tone with its experiments.

The next in line to be a national theatre is the national old theatre in Krakow. This is the only one belonging to the union of European theatres. This theatre undertakes a more subtle and conservative approach in its experiments and is widely liked by the people of Poland. The current collaborator of this old theatre is Krystian Lupa and he is known for producing dramas by German writers. He has done existential and philosophical experiments in yet poetic and more modern-day human-centric rather than plot or conflict-centered.

The very famous actors and directors that have emerged from the polish theatre are Tadeusz Kantor (1915-1990) and Andrzej Seweryn who later worked on the staging of Mahabharata. This country also saw a genuine rebirth after the fall of the Soviet empire in its theatre with the rise of actor, director, and politician Jerzy Fedorowicz(1989-2005). It was under him that the theatre managed to win considerable recognition and several awards. The current director of this theatre is Jacek Strama, an award-winning theatre and film producer.

theatrical reform

The most courageous part of theatrical reform in the 20th century is linking theatre with metaphysics. This was commenced by one of the Polish Romantics Adam Mickiewicz. This paved way for the Stainslaw Wyspianskis work, which remains reverentially complex, lucid, vivid, and a fascinating Polish Heritage. The holocaust of the twentieth century also gave rise to the theatre of death with many famous productions like, Wielopole or I shall never return and the Dead Class referring to the experiences and memories of the tragic events of the holocaust and its survivors. Thus Poland with its rich and vast theatrical and artistic heritage is a sight for all eyes young and old.

The Poles are aware of their recorded memory, and historical facts continue to affect and drive many societal views. The nation was largely regarded to have lost severely during the twentieth century. Pretty much every single Polish household would have been impacted in some way by the oppression and suffering of World War II. Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union after WWII and finally gained independence in 1989. In Poland, these decades saw widespread industrialization, urbanisation, and numerous advances in standard of living. Nevertheless, societal discontent, acute financial struggles, administrative impediments, and the restriction of various types of self and individual liberty undermined the communist system. Many individuals remain unconvinced of politicians and distrustful of government as a consequence of this time.


Polish literature has traditionally been the primary medium for cultural representation in Poland. Poetry and christianity are two foundations of Polish culture for very many Poles. Another of their most valued linkages to Western culture is literary, which serves as among the primary defenders of their nationhood. Even during communist time, though, the strong association between local political rallies and cultural tendencies, as well as the need of resorting to complicated metaphor, references, and symbolism, made many brilliant Polish masterpieces unreachable to the greater community.


Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Sowacki, and Zygmunt Krasiski are the three greatest and most famous Polish authors with the first half of the 19th century. Wonderful Polish literature writers, such as Bolesaw Prus, Eliza Orzeszkowa, Stefan eromski, and Nobel Prize winners Henryk Sienkiewicz (1905) and Wadysaw Reymont (1924), were involved even during late nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, who were mostly a portion of the Young Poland motion. The brilliant author Joseph Conrad (Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski), although matured works were in English but who contributed a decidedly non-English dramatic sensitivity to English literature, should be included to this list. The welcome granted to clandestine writing that began after World War II but it was not recognised till the 1950s and 1960s is an example.

The newer generation writers

Zbigniew Herbert, Tadeusz Róewicz, and Nobel Laureates Czesaw Miosz and Wisawa Szymborska were among the most prominent artists of the post war era. Screenwriters Witold Gombrowicz and Sawomir Mroek, scientific research author Stanisaw Lem, and journalist and novelist Ryszard Kapuciski, as well as expat novelist Jerzy Kosinski and non – resident Nowa fala poet Adam Zagajewski, got global acclaim in the latter half of the twentieth century. Polish poetry, which was produced on the outside of European throughout the majority of the 20th century, has been acknowledged as a crucial influence not only in the cultural scene of Poland, but also in global literature in large.

Such as Polish poetry, Polish musicianship has a long history dating back to medieval Times. Government restrictions were less severe since it was the weakest overtly political of the crafts. The krakowiak, mazurka, and polonaise, native qualities of this genre based on the unique beats and harmonies of folk music, developed earlier, and a separate style of Polish religious music had become clearly established by the Renaissance. Cud mniemany, czyli Krakowiacy I Górale, the very first significant Polish musical, was presented in 1794 by Jan Stefani and Wojciech Bogusawski. Stanisaw Moniuszko created a number of renowned songs in the nineteenth century, notably Halka, Straszny dwór (“The Haunted Manor”), and Hrabina (“The Countess”).


The sound of music

Frédéric Chopin is often regarded as the musical embodiment of Polishness. He is just one in a continuous succession of percussionists from Polish territories to win worldwide acclaim, adding to his reputation as one of the greatest genius musicians. Ignacy Paderewski and Artur Rubinstein, and also Henryk Szeryng, a violinist, testifies to the vigour of Polish musicianship. Karol Szymanowski, Witold Lutosawski, Henryk Górecki, and Krzysztof Penderecki have influenced modern Polish composing.

Opera, symphonic, theater, and chamber music are quite well in Poland, and numerous symphonies and choruses perform frequently on the world stage. But even though Polish jazz, which was formally silenced in the first twenty years of communist rule, has earned a name for experimentation and greatness, thanks in part to the groundbreaking work of performers like Micha Urbaniak, Tomasz Stanko, and Leszek Moder, mainstream music in Poland is hugely affected by Western ideals. Events like the Warsaw Jazz Jamboree and Jazz on the Oder attract musicians and audiences from all over the globe.

Visual arts

Many beautiful specimens of mediaeval Roman and Medieval buildings, both secular and religious, have indeed been conserved, along with magnificent statues, the most renowned of which would be Veit Stoss’s (Wit Stwosz) hardwood shrine at Kraków’s St. Mary’s Church (Koció Mariacki). The gigantic red fortress of Malbork (Marienburg), previously the Teutonic Knights’ stronghold, is one of Europe’s finest spectacular; a strong fortress was awarded an UNESCO World Heritage site in the year 1997. The main building of Pozna and the ornate farm buildings at Kazimierz Dolny are examples of Early renaissance Greek architecture that were influenced by Italian influences yet acquired distinct Polish form. Zamo, a classic Medieval city founded in the 1580s, has been preserved almost completely intact.

Visual arts


With common convictions in kinship ties and equality, the people is mainly bonded despite economic classes. Poland is, in fact, more group – oriented than other Western countries due to its profound roots in conservative values. Be a consequence, it is frequently referred to as “Eastern” when contrasted to Central Europe. Poles, on the other hand, have long considered themselves to be the’softest’ of all the Slavic people.